Category Archives: SCIENCES

Coke Without Coke

May 1, 1904


Illustration by Eric Bethea

Colonel John Pemberton was wounded in the Civil War, became addicted to morphine, and began a quest to find a substitute for the dangerous opiate.[5] The prototype Coca-Cola recipe was formulated at Pemberton’s Eagle Drug and Chemical House,[6] a drugstore in Columbus, Georgia, originally as a coca wine.[7][8] He may have been inspired by the formidable success of Vin Mariani, a European coca wine.[9]

In 1885, Pemberton registered his French Wine Coca nerve tonic.

Pemberton called for five ounces of coca leaf per gallon of syrup, a significant dose; in 1891, Candler claimed his formula (altered extensively from Pemberton’s original) contained only a tenth of this amount. Coca-Cola once contained an estimated nine milligrams of cocaine per glass. In 1903, it was removed.[60]

After 1904, instead of using fresh leaves, Coca-Cola started using “spent” leaves – the leftovers of the cocaine-extraction process with trace levels of cocaine.[61] Coca-Cola now uses a cocaine-free coca leaf extract prepared at a Stepan Company plant in Maywood, New Jersey.[62]

In the United States, the Stepan Company is the only manufacturing plant authorized by the Federal Government to import and process the coca plant,[63] which it obtains mainly from Peru and, to a lesser extent, Bolivia. Besides producing the coca flavoring agent for Coca-Cola, the Stepan Company extracts cocaine from the coca leaves, which it sells to Mallinckrodt, aSt. Louis, Missouri, pharmaceutical manufacturer that is the only company in the United States licensed to purify cocaine for medicinal use.[64]



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Camera Obscura

January 1, 1604


Illustration by Jacob Mehr

The Camera Obscura is an optical device that is constructed with a box or room with a single hole on one side. Light fromt he outside scene travels through the hole (aperture) and is reflected onto the opposing wall flipped upside down. The Camera Obscura eventually led to the birth of photography.

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